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    外来入侵物种是否能对生态环境有利(下)

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    Another attempt to undo a human-induced intrinsic harm is the introduction of Aldabra giant tortoises to ile aux Aigrettes, near Mauritius, to replace an extinct local species that had been crucial to maintaining this island’s ebony forests.

    还有一个人类为了消除其对环境造成的内在伤害而引入外来物种的例子:在毛里求斯附近的爱格雷特岛引入亚达伯拉巨型陆龟,以代替当地一种已经灭绝的,对维持乌木森林至关重要的当地物种。

    Introductions are also sometimes made to reduce the risk of a localised species becoming extinct.

    有时,引入外来物种也是为了降低当地物种灭绝的风险。

    Pyne’s ground plum, native to a handful of sites in the central basins of Tennessee but now transplanted to others, falls into this category.

    一种黄芪属植物的原产地只有田纳西州中央盆地的几个地点,但现在移植到了其他地区,就是因为这个原因。

    Relational values are the most esoteric, being experienced on an emotional rather than a practical level.

    关系价值是最深奥的,是需要在情感层面,而不是实践层面上来体会。

    Lots of people feel good about native wildlife, which is generally the main motive for its conservation.

    许多人对本土的野生动植物感觉良好,通常是他们保护这些动植物的主要原因。

    But that feel-good factor can extend to interlopers as well, especially if the interloping happened a while back.

    但这种感觉也可以延伸到外来物种身上,特别是外来物种在当地存在一段时间之后。

    Dingoes, for example, are the descendants of dogs brought to Australia more than 3,500 years ago, presumably by human agency, but which have lived free there ever since and have entered the mythologies of aboriginal Australians.

    例如澳洲野犬。它可能是3500多年前由人类引入澳大利亚的狗的后代,但从那以后,它们一直在澳大利亚自由生活,并在澳大利亚原住民的神话中占有了一席之地。

    Similarly, the wild horses and asses (mustangs and burros) of North America, though not as long established as dingoes, have found places in the hearts of sufficient numbers of people to have active lobbies for their conservation.

    同样,北美的野马和野驴(卡尤塞马和美国西部小毛驴)虽然没有像澳洲野犬那么久远的历史,但也在很多人心中找到了立足之地,得到了积极的保护。

    Relational values can cut both ways, however.

    然而,关系价值有利也有弊。

    For example, ring-necked parakeets, an Asian and African species, have been spreading through Britain for several decades.

    来自亚洲和非洲的环颈鹦鹉,几十年来一直在英国繁衍。

    Some find them a colourful addition to the local wildlife, others a gaudy, noisy competitor for native birds.

    一些人认为它们五颜六色,能够丰富当地野生动物的色彩,另一些人则认为它们花里胡哨、叽叽喳喳,是本土鸟类的竞争者。

    Having established their intellectual framework, Dr. Sax and his colleagues suggest future research might work within it and, in particular, be properly open-minded about the benefits as well as the costs of introductions.

    萨克斯博士和他的同事们建立了自己的理论框架,他们建议在这个框架下进行未来的研究,尤其是要对物种引入的利弊保持适当的开放态度。

    Past attempts to do this for significant numbers of species at a time are rare, though they have come up with two.

    就引入物种的利弊进行的大型研究很少,但还是有两份研究记录。

    One, published in 2020, examined 105 species.

    其中一个研究发表于2020年,研究了105个物种。

    It showed only benefits for 30, only costs for 31 and both for 44.

    研究显示30个物种对当地生态有利,31个物种会对生态构成威胁,44个物种利弊皆有。

    Another, from 2014, came to similar conclusions for 87 marine species introduced into European waters.

    2014年的另一项研究是关于引入欧洲水域的87种海洋物种,并得出了类似的结论。

    7 provided pure benefit, 17 pure cost and 63 both.

    7个物种对生态完全有利,17个物种是纯粹的威胁,63个物种利弊皆有。

    In light of their analysis Dr. Sax and his team therefore suggest that researchers studying introduced species should in future follow three principles.

    因此,根据他们的分析,萨克斯博士和他的团队建议研究外来物种的研究人员在未来遵循三个原则。

    First, they should create a clear distinction in their studies between changes that have happened and judgments about the value of those changes.

    首先,他们应该在研究中分清变化以及对这些变化的价值判断。

    Second, when making those judgments, they should acknowledge all three types of values, rather than focusing narrowly on one or two of them.

    其次,在做出判断时,研究人员应该关注全部三种类型的价值,而不是仅仅关注其中的一种或两种。

    Third, they should actively consider biases in previous research that might have led to unbalanced conclusions.

    第三,他们应该积极思考之前研究中可能导致错误结论的偏见。

    That done, many species will surely still end up on the debit side of the ledger.

    即使做到了这些,许多物种最终还是会被归为有害的一方。

    But others, badly thought of in the past, may not.

    但也有一些在过去被认为是威胁的物种或许能洗清罪名。

    Dingoes, for one, were originally despised by Australia’s more recent, European, settlers.

    例如,澳洲野犬最初受到来到澳大利亚的欧洲定居者的鄙视。

    Now those, too, include partisans seeking the dogs’ preservation.

    现在,这些人也成为了澳洲野犬的坚定支持者,希望能够好好保护它们。

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    analysis [ə'næləsis]

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    n. 分析,解析

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    experienced [iks'piəriənst]

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    adj. 有经验的

     
    conservation [.kɔnsə:'veiʃən]

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    n. 保存,防止流失,守恒,保护自然资源

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    previous ['pri:vjəs]

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    adj. 在 ... 之前,先,前,以前的

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    ledger ['ledʒə]

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    总帐,分类帐 n. 帐簿

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    established [is'tæbliʃt]

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    adj. 已被确认的,确定的,建立的,制定的 动词est

     
    preservation [.prezə'veiʃən]

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    n. 保存

     
    intrinsic [in'trinsik]

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    adj. 固有的,内在的

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    intellectual [.intil'ektʃuəl]

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    n. 知识份子,凭理智做事者
    adj. 智力的

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    esoteric [.esəu'terik]

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    adj. 秘传的,神秘的,难懂的

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