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    美国人权政治化行径毁损人权善治根基(4)(中英对照)

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    3. The US wielding the baton of human rights in violation of the sovereignty of other countries

    3.挥舞人权大棒侵犯他国主权

    The US combines economic, political, and military approaches with human rights to achieve its purpose of human rights diplomacy. On the one hand, it links human rights with economic assistance – countries that accept its assistance must also accept its human rights standards. On the other hand, it takes armed actions against those countries that resist its human rights diplomacy to pursue its purpose.

    美国将经济、政治乃至军事手段与人权外交手段相结合,以实现其人权外交目的。一方面,美国将人权与经济援助挂钩,要求接受美国援助的国家也必须同时接受美国的人权标准。另一方面,对于那些抵制美国人权外交的国家,则结合武力行动以实现人权外交目的。

    All US administrations have made maintaining America’s hegemony and preventing the appearance of a major Asian-Pacific country that would threaten it as their strategic core. China, for realistic reasons, has become its prime target, with “human rights” being a useful card to contain its rise. According to James Peck, a scholar at New York University, the anti-China faction within the US government still believes today that human rights are the last ideological weapon against China and a project that will bring doomsday to the Communist Party of China. They argue that they cannot count on China’s economic collapse and they must resort to the political weapon of human rights to bring it down from within. In 2000, US Congress formed the Congressional-Executive Commission on China that, monitoring China’s human rights conditions in all respects, represented the common interests of Congress, the government’s national security agency, business groups, and human rights organizations.

    美国历届政府都将维持美国的霸权地位,防止亚太地区出现有损美国霸权的大国作为其战略核心。中国由于现实原因成为美国遏制的首要目标,而“人权”则是美国用来牵制中国的一张牌。美国纽约大学历史和国际关系学者詹姆斯·派克指出,在美国政府内部主张对华遏制的一派时至今日坚持认为,人权是针对中国的最后一个意识形态武器,是让中国共产党无法生存下去的一个项目。“既然不能在经济上指望中国‘崩溃’,那就通过‘人权’这一政治武器从内部促使中国崩溃。”2000年,美国国会成立了“美国国会——行政部门中国委员会”,集中体现参众两院、政府国家安全机构、商业集团和人权组织的共同利益。这个委员会监控中国各个方面的人权状况。

    Analyzing a huge amount of historical materials, James Peck concluded that the so-called human rights advocated by the US government are not in the least related to the genuine concept and that the country only takes advantage of the banner of human rights to advance its global strategy. The US government has gradually turned human rights into a discourse power to promote its diplomatic policies, or more precisely, a tool to promote America’s ideology and public diplomacy.

    詹姆斯·派克通过分析大量的历史材料得出结论:美国官方所倡导的所谓人权与真正的人权理念几乎没有丝毫的联系,美国官方高举人权旗帜,其唯一的目的是利用人权推广自己的全球战略。美国政府逐步把人权变成推行其外交政策的一种话语权,成为美国意识形态和公共外交的工具。

    III. US politicization of human rights seriously undermines global governance of human rights

    三、美国人权政治化行径严重危害全球人权善治

    The US politicization of human rights has brought disastrous effects on global human rights governance. It has hindered the normal development of the international cause of human rights, plunged some countries into chaos, and profaned the sacred concept and ideal of human rights.

    美国将人权政治化,对全球人权治理带来灾难性影响,阻碍了国际人权事业的正常发展,导致一些国家陷入混乱,玷污了人权的概念和神圣理想。

    First, the US politicization of human rights hinders the sound development of the cause of human rights at the global level. Dividing the world based on political interests, the US has precluded the possibility of having a normal dialogue between those holding different views on human rights and turned the UN human rights body into a battlefield of political confrontation. This not only hurts the development of the global cause of human rights but also keeps America’s own human rights conditions in a chronically poor state. Samuel Moyn, a professor of Columbia Law School, and other scholars held that as the politicians in the US who are good at playing with power politics treated human rights issues with scorn and contempt, the so-called “human rights revolution” in the 1940s came to an abrupt end right after its birth. From the end of the 1940s to the early 1970s, human rights issues came to a “dead zone” because, as many scholars believed, the US didn’t take an active part in international actions on this subject amid Cold War politics.

    首先,美国的人权政治化行径阻碍国际人权事业的健康发展。美国以政治利益划界,阻塞了不同人权观点之间正常对话的可能性,将联合国人权机构变为政治对抗的战场。这不仅影响了全球人权事业的发展,而且也使美国自身的人权状况长期得不到应有的改善。哥伦比亚大学法学院教授塞缪尔·莫恩等学者认为,由于美国那些善于玩弄实力政治的政客们对人权问题根本不屑一顾,20世纪40年代所谓的人权革命“夭折于诞生之时”。众多学者认为,20世纪40年代末到70年代初期人权问题陷入“死胡同”,是因为美国在冷战政治中未能积极参与对人权问题的国际行动。

    Second, interfering in the internal affairs of other countries on the excuse of human rights, the US has created national turmoil in other countries and started new human rights disasters. The US' violation of the sovereignty of other countries has led to wars and loss of lives in the intervened and invaded countries, resulting in new human rights disasters. US scholars Seung-Whan Choi and James Patrick revealed that the US generally employs four policy tools to sell its human rights values to the international community. The first is military interference, which is what happened in Iraq and Kosovo, where the US launched wars on the pretext of their state of human rights. The second is military assistance, meaning that the US government provides weapons to the militarists of specific factions on the excuse of eliminating the human rights crisis. The third is economic sanction. The most typical way to use this tool is first labeling certain countries as the so-called “rogue states” and then instigating American allies to cut off economic ties with it. The fourth is economic assistance, which is widely used in the diplomatic policies towards Latin American countries, who are demanded to improve their human rights according to American standards if they are to accept the economic assistance. The two researchers, through a comparative analysis of the data of 144 countries over nearly 30 years, concluded that almost all of America’s diplomatically driven output of human rights since WWII have failed. Its military interference in Iraq is a failure, so is its economic assistance to Latin American countries, as basic human rights are not fully guaranteed in those areas even until today. This fully proves that using human rights as a strategic tool will not truly improve human rights; rather, it will lead to new human rights disasters.

    其次,美国以人权为借口干涉别国内政,制造国家动荡,产生新的人权灾难。美国侵犯他国主权,导致被干涉和侵略国家战火纷飞、生灵涂炭,造成了新的人权灾难。美国学者崔升焕和詹姆斯·帕特里克指出,美国向国际社会单方面输出自己人权价值观有四种常见的政策工具:一是军事干涉,如在伊拉克或科索沃,美国以这些国家和地区的人权状态恶化为借口而发动战争;二是军事援助,以消除人权危机为由,美国政府将武器提供给特定派系的武装分子;三是经济制裁,最典型的是认定所谓的“流氓国家”,号召其盟友一起切断与该国的经济往来;四是经济援助,这种工具被广泛运用在美国对拉美的外交政策之中,在提供经济援助的同时,要求这些国家依照美国的标准改善人权水平。两位学者在对近30年间144个国家的数据进行对比分析后得出的结论是:二战后,美国基于外交的人权输出几乎全是失败的,无论是军事干涉伊拉克,还是经济援助拉美国家,至今都未能使那里的基本人权得到保障。这表明,美国将人权战略工具化,非但不能真正地改善人权,反而会导致新的人权灾难。

    Last but not least, taking human rights merely as a tool to implement its global strategy, the US has profaned the lofty ideal of human rights. The US blatantly exercised double standards, ignored, indeed even indulged, true violations of human rights. In the meantime, it has slammed policies and measures that are genuinely aimed at protecting human rights and even imposed economic sanctions, political pressuring, or military deterrence on countries adopting them. What America has done has seriously tainted mankind’s long-cherished ideal of human rights and reduced the concept into no more than an excuse and tool for its outrage against human rights in other countries. As Xu Yicong, former Chinese ambassador to Cuba, pointed out, the human rights concept advocated by them is a political baton, a tool it uses to interfere in the internal affairs and subvert the legitimate regime in other countries and a politicized approach and tactic. It is never intended to respect human rights. Whenever there was unrest and disturbance somewhere in the world, we could hear them chanting about human rights. When sovereign states were dealing with insurgents endangering national sovereignty and security, we could see the West wielding its baton of human rights. In the final analysis, they are politicizing human rights with ulterior motives, and that is essentially and exactly a show of disrespect for human rights.

    最后,美国将人权作为实现其全球战略的工具,玷污全球人权崇高的理想。美国大搞双重标准,漠视甚至纵容真正侵犯人权的行径,而且对保护人权的政策措施口诛笔伐甚至实施经济制裁、政治施压或军事威慑。这使得人类长期追求的人权理想被严重玷污,人权概念成为美国侵犯他国人权的借口和工具。正如中国前驻古巴大使徐贻聪指出:“它们提倡的‘人权’,实际上是一根政治大棒,基本上是用来干涉他国内政、颠覆他国合法政府的工具,是一种‘政治化’的手段和策略,并非是对人权的本质尊重。在世界各地,凡是有动乱的地方,都能听到它们‘保护人权’的口号,在一些国家处理危害国家主权和安全的叛国分子时,也都能看到西方世界的‘人权大棒’。说到底,它们就是在将人权‘政治化’,完全是别有用心。从本质上说,将人权问题政治化,是在实质上并不尊重人权的表现。”

    The US politicization of human rights has eroded and ruined the global foundation of human rights governance and incurred disastrous consequences to the global cause of human rights. It has been extensively condemned and criticized by the just forces in the international community. At the General Debate of the Third Committee of the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly on October 7, 2021, China’s permanent representative to the United Nations, Zhang Jun, made the following statement: “At the Third Committee, the US and a few other countries are provoking confrontation, pointing fingers at other developing countries’ human rights situation, and brazenly launching smear campaigns. At the same time, they choose to stay silent on their own issues and turn a blind eye to the terrible human rights records of their allies… In total disregard of facts, the US and a few other countries are fabricating lies…making groundless accusations against China, and using human rights to interfere in China’s internal affairs. These moves are firmly opposed and resolutely rejected by the Chinese Government and people.” Representatives from Egypt, Algeria, Chad, Turkmenistan, Belarus, and Venezuela all underscored in their speeches that the people of each country have the right to independently choose their path of human rights development according to national conditions. They firmly opposed the politicization of human rights, the exercise of double standards, and the interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

    美国的人权政治化行径侵蚀和毁损全球人权善治的基础,给全球人权事业带来了灾难性的后果,受到了国际社会正义力量的普遍谴责和广泛声讨。中国常驻联合国代表张军2021年10月7日在第76届联合国大会第三委员会一般性辩论中发言指出,美国等少数国家执意在联大三委挑起对抗,点名批评其他发展中国家人权状况,各种帽子满天飞,却对自己和盟友国家的人权劣迹视而不见。美国等少数国家罔顾事实、编造谎言、对中国进行无理指责,借人权干涉中国内政。对此,中国政府和人民坚决反对、严正拒绝。埃及、阿尔及利亚、乍得、土库曼斯坦、白俄罗斯、委内瑞拉等国在发言中强调,各国人民有权根据国情自主选择人权发展道路,坚决反对将人权问题政治化,反对搞双重标准,反对干涉内政。

    The disastrous consequences of US politicization of human rights have made people realize, ever more deeply, that the non-politicization of human rights is the foundation and precondition for smooth global governance of human rights and that preventing and curbing human rights politicization is an important guarantee for promoting the sound development of the international human rights cause. To safeguard its own interests, the US, acting against the historical trend, has doubled up its acts of politicization that have damaged the healthy mechanism of global human rights development and pushed many countries one after another into the swirl of social turbulence. People across the world, having seen through its mask of “human rights defender,” have stood up to oppose its despicable moves. As a result, the global hegemony that the US has tried so hard to maintain will be shaken, and the bell for its decline will toll amid the song of triumph celebrating the development of human rights worldwide.

    美国将人权政治化所导致的恶果使人们日益深刻地认识到,人权非政治化是全球人权治理得以顺利进行的基础和前提,防止和遏制人权政治化,是促进世界人权事业健康发展的重要保障。美国为了维护自身利益,逆历史潮流而动,变本加厉推行人权政治化,破坏全球人权事业的健康机体,将一个又一个国家推入社会动荡的漩涡。世界各国人民越来越认清其“人权卫士”面具之下的真面目,反对美国逆时代潮流而动的卑劣行径,这将使美国竭尽全力维护的国际霸权遭到全面反噬,在全球人权事业发展的凯歌声中鸣响起美国霸权衰落的丧钟。

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    sacred ['seikrid]

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    adj. 神圣的,受尊重的

     
    sovereignty ['sɔvrənti]

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    n. 主权,独立国

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    intended [in'tendid]

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    adj. 故意的,有意的;打算中的 n. 已订婚者 v.

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    prime [praim]

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    adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
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    faction ['fækʃən]

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    n. 内讧,小集团,派系斗争

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    smear [smiə]

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    vt. 涂抹,涂去,弄脏,诽谤 n. 污点,涂料,诽谤

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    concept ['kɔnsept]

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    genuine ['dʒenjuin]

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    acting ['æktiŋ]

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    n. 演戏,行为,假装 adj. 代理的,临时的,供演出

     
    hegemony [hi:'geməni]

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    n. 霸权,领导权

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