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    美国人权政治化行径毁损人权善治根基(3)(中英对照)

    来源:可可英语 编辑:Villa ?  可可英语APP下载 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

    (II) US politicization of human rights shown in three manifestations

    (二)美国将人权政治化的三种形态

    Given the conflict between its global strategy and international human rights standards, the US either gives up the latter to defend its hegemony, or selectively applies them to serve its political interests, or simply uses them as an excuse to label countries threatening its political interests as “human rights violators,” thus cloaking its breach of their sovereignty with a moral veil.

    面对其全球战略与国际人权标准之间的冲突,美国或是放弃人权原则,赤裸裸地维护霸权;或是根据自己的政治利益有选择性地适用人权原则;或是直接将人权作为借口,对威胁自己政治利益的国家扣上“侵犯人权”的帽子,为侵犯他国主权披上道德外衣。

    1. Disregarding the basic concept of human rights to pursue political interests

    1.图谋政治利益抛弃基本人权理念

    The “Dulles doctrine” that the US put forth in the 1950s planted such an idea that competing with the Soviet Union was contributing to human rights. Dulles saw the UN as the best rostrum to condemn America’s communist rivals, the Eisenhower administration paid more attention to “moral anti-communism” than to international acknowledged human rights, and the Kennedy and Johnson administrations put anti-communism on top of their agenda and human rights issue on the third spot. Robert M. Gates, former Director of Central Intelligence Agency and Secretary of Defense, wrote that President Carter launched an ideological war against the Soviet Union with resolve and strength never seen in previous presidents of the United States, by attacking the legitimacy of the Soviet government and fully supporting any dissident in the country.

    美国在20世纪50年代提出的“杜勒斯主义”树立了这样的理念:同苏联竞争,就是对人权作贡献。杜勒斯主义主张把联合国作为谴责共产主义对手的最好讲坛,艾森豪威尔政府用“道德反共主义”代替对国际上公认人权的关注,肯尼迪和约翰逊政府则把反共置于优先地位,人权问题只放在第三位。曾任美国中央情报局局长和国防部部长的罗伯特·盖茨曾经写道,“卡特政府以任何美国总统前所未有的决心和力度向苏联发起了意识形态战争”,具体办法就是“攻击苏联政府的合法性”和全力支持苏联国内的持不同政见者。

    2. Exercising double standards on human rights with discriminations between US political friends and foes

    2.区分政治敌友双标适用人权准则

    When promoting human rights diplomacy and handling human rights affairs, the US doesn’t comply with the uniform international standards or guarantee human rights from a just and objective perspective. It always exercises double or even multiple standards.

    美国在推行人权外交和处理人权事务时,并不是按照统一的国际人权标准,从公正、客观的角度关注人权保障,而是采取双重标准甚至多重标准。

    First of all, it upholds one set of standards for its own human rights issues and another set for those in other countries. Turning a blind eye to the myriad systematic human rights violations at home, the US never mentions these issues, such as unemployment, poverty, homelessness, permissive gun laws, violence, crime, racism and the human rights issues of immigrants in its annual country reports on human rights practices, while always pointing fingers at other countries in a condescending way.

    首先,对自己国家的人权问题奉行一套标准,对别的国家的人权问题奉行另外一套标准。尽管美国国内长期存在大量失业、贫困、无家可归、枪支泛滥、暴力犯罪、种族歧视、移民人权等系统性人权问题,然而美国在其每年的国别人权报告中却对这些视而不见,避而不谈,一味趾高气扬地指责别国的所谓人权问题。

    Second, it upholds one set of standards for its allies or friendly states and another set for countries that have a different ideology, political and social system, and conflicts of interests with it. In the Human Rights Memo submitted by the Reagan administration to the Congress, the Reagan administration stipulated the “active” and “passive” human rights standards, the former applying to the socialist countries in East Europe, with the harshest punishments on their rights-violating acts, while the latter applying to America’s allies no matter how serious the violation was. The annual country reports on human rights released by the US exaggerate the human rights conditions in developing countries, socialist countries, and other “unfriendly” countries but downplay or cover up such issues in its allies.

    其次,对自己的盟国或友好国家奉行一套标准,对与自己意识形态不同、政治和社会制度不同或利益相冲突的国家则奉行另一套标准。里根政府在提交国会的《人权备忘录》中规定了“积极的”和“消极的”人权标准,对苏联东欧社会主义国家适用“积极的”人权标准,对它们侵犯人权的行为给予最严厉的惩罚;而对美国的盟国,即使存在侵犯人权现象,最多也只采取“消极的”人权标准。在美国每年发表的国别人权报告中,对发展中国家、社会主义及其他“不友好”国家的人权问题夸张渲染,但对其盟友的人权问题则轻描淡写或遮遮掩掩。

    Third, the US adopts different human rights standards to a country in different periods. If a country adopts a policy at a certain point that betrays the interests of the US government, “human rights issue” can be used to criticize, threaten or sanction that country; if the country panders to the interests of the US government, then “human rights issue” will be less important and incentives will be employed.

    第三,对同一国家在不同时期采取不同人权标准。如果某个国家在某个历史时期的政策违背了美国政府的利益,“人权问题”就可以被利用来指责、要挟和制裁该国;当该国迎合了美国政府的利益时,“人权问题”则可能被置于次要的地位,而改用激励方法。

    Fourth, the US adopts a different attitude toward different human rights issues in different periods. After the end of WWII, the US was quite indifferent to human rights and didn’t change its position until, especially after what happened in Hungary in 1956. Reports by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees indicated that the US began to take a supportive position because it believed that establishing an international system on refugees would be a powerful weapon in the struggle between the East and the West.

    第四,在不同时期和不同问题上对人权采取不同的态度。在第二次世界大战刚结束的一段时期,美国始终对人权持冷淡态度。直到后来,特别是1956年匈牙利事件以后,联合国难民署的材料显示建立难民国际制度将是东西方斗争中的一个有力武器,美国才转而采取支持立场。

    Fifth, the US adopts a different attitude toward different types of rights. Entrenched in its own economic and political system, the US has one attitude towards economic, social, and cultural rights and another towards civil rights and politics, one attitude toward liberty and another toward the rights to subsistence and development – emphasizing the former but downplaying or denying the latter.

    第五,对不同类权利采取不同态度。美国从自身经济和政治体制出发,对经济、社会和文化权利与公民权利和政治权利采取不同态度,对自由权与生存权、发展权采取不同态度,突出强调前者而淡化甚至否认后者。

    No matter how many forms these selective and double standards take on, their ultimate purpose is to make human rights serve America’s global hegemony and curb the development of socialist countries. As Zbigniew Brzezinski, former national security adviser to ex-US President Jimmy Carter, proclaimed in his book The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century that human rights are a provident strategic choice that will push the transition of communist countries to democracies and accelerate the decline of communism.

    无论这种选择性和双重标准有多少形式,其最终目的都是使人权服从服务于美国的世界霸权和遏制社会主义国家发展的需要。正如美国前总统卡特的国家安全顾问布热津斯基在《大失败》一书中所公开宣称的:人权“是促进共产党国家逐步向民主政治过渡的具有远见卓识的战略选择,可加速共产主义衰亡的进程”。

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