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    美国人权政治化行径毁损人权善治根基(1)(中英对照)

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    US Politicization of Human Rights Erodes Foundations of Human Rights Governance

    美国人权政治化行径毁损人权善治根基

    The China Society for Human Rights Studies

    中国人权研究会

    December 2021

    2021年12月

    Since the end of WWII, global human rights practices have repeatedly proved that rejecting the politics-oriented mentality and discussing and promoting human rights on an equal and rational basis is a major prerequisite for the international community to properly handle human rights issues and conduct exchange and cooperation in this regard. For this reason, measures taken purposely to politicize human rights issues could prove fatal to global human rights governance. This has become a fundamental consensus reached by the international community on human rights.

    第二次世界大战结束以来的全球人权实践反复证明,摆脱政治化思维、平等理性地商讨和推进人权,是国际社会妥善处理人权问题、开展人权交流合作的重要基础;而采取人权政治化措施,则势必对全球人权善治造成致命伤害。这已成为国际人权领域的基本共识。

    The term “politicization of human rights” refers to the propensity and process that actors in international relations, out of certain political motives, deal with human rights issues in an attitude of political utilitarianism to realize certain political interests. The politicization of human rights has the following patterns of manifestation: (1) Human rights issues are treated in selective rather than universal ways; (2) Human rights conditions are evaluated by double standards rather than objective standards; (3) Differences in human rights issues are dealt with through confrontation rather than dialogue; and (4) Divergences over human rights issues are resolved through unilateral coercion rather than multilateral cooperation.

    “人权政治化”,是指国际关系行为体出于某种政治动机以政治实用主义的态度来处理人权问题,将人权作为实现某种政治利益的倾向与过程。人权政治化的表现形式主要包括:(1)以选择性而不是普遍性的方式对待人权问题;(2)以双重标准而不是客观标准评价人权状况;(3)以对抗而不是对话的方式处理在人权问题上的差异;(4)以单方面强制而不是多边合作的方式处理人权方面的分歧等等。

    The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) advocates the non-politicization of human rights and a universal and objective attitude toward human rights issues. The UNHRC upholds multilateralism and calls for the elimination of human rights politicization through constructive dialogue and international solidarity and cooperation. Resolution 60/251 of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) underscores “the importance of ensuring universality, objectivity and non-selectivity in consideration of human rights issues, and the elimination of double standards and politicization.” The UNHRC’s Resolution 5/1 demands that “the universal periodic review should be conducted in an objective, transparent, non-selective, constructive, non-confrontational and non-politicized manner,” and that “the principles of objectivity, non-selectivity, and the elimination of double standards and politicization should apply.” Moreover, a communication…shall be admissible, provided that it is “not manifestly politically motivated” and “not resorting to politically motivated stands contrary to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.” The UNHRC’s Resolution 47/9 emphasizes that “human rights dialogue should be constructive and based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, objectivity, non-selectivity, non-politicization, mutual respect and equal treatment.”

    联合国人权机构明确主张人权的非政治化,要求在人权问题上采取普遍、客观的态度,坚持多边主义,促进建设性对话、国际团结与合作,消除人权政治化。联合国大会第60/251号决议要求“在审议人权问题时要确保普遍性、客观性和非选择性,并要消除双重标准和政治化”。人权理事会第5/1号决议规定人权普遍定期审议机制应“客观、透明、不作选择、具有建设性、非对抗、非政治化地进行”,应“适用客观性、非选择性、消除双重标准和政治化倾向的原则”,受理的来文应当“没有明显的政治动机”“不采取含有政治动机并有违《联合国宪章》规定的立场”。人权理事会第47/9号决议强调,“人权对话应具有建设性,并基于普遍性、不可分割性、客观性、非选择性、非政治化、相互尊重和平等相待等原则”。

    However, to maintain its political interests and global hegemony, the United States has brazenly resorted to human rights politicization in the international community through such means as adopting selective and double standards and imposing unilateral coercion. Its behaviors have seriously eroded the foundation that underlies the global human rights governance, gravely threatened the international development of human rights cause, and generated outrageously destructive consequences.

    然而,美国为了维护自身的政治利益和全球霸权地位,在国际人权领域大搞人权政治化,采取选择性、双重标准、单方面强制等手段,严重侵蚀了全球人权治理赖以支撑和运行的重要基础,对全球人权事业发展构成重大威胁,产生了极其恶劣的破坏性后果。

    I. The historical process of US politicization of human rights

    一、美国人权政治化的历史进程

    Generally speaking, the US politicization of human rights can be divided into three stages. The first stage is before the 1970s when the US adopted the international human rights standards after a fashion but still snubbed or even rejected them. The second stage was from the 1970s to the end of the Cold War when the US promoted “human rights diplomacy” and used human rights as a political tool to attack the former Soviet Union. The third stage started from the end of the Cold War and has lasted ever since, during which the US has arbitrarily imposed upon other countries its own human rights values as a “soft power” and suppressed countries of different political systems in the attempt to maintain US dominant status in the world.

    从总体上看,美国的人权政治化可以分为三个阶段:在20世纪70年代之前,对国际人权标准持勉强、冷漠甚至拒斥态度;在20世纪70年代至冷战结束前,推进“人权外交”,利用人权作为打击前苏联的政治工具;在冷战结束后,肆无忌惮地将自己的人权价值观作为“软实力”强加于他国,打压与自己政治制度不同的国家,以维护自身的全球霸权。

    (I) Period I: The US snubbed and rejected international human rights

    (一)漠视及拒斥国际人权时期

    While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was in the making, the US government expressed verbal support while stressing that it should be no more than an inspiring document with no binding force. It insisted on making the articles on human rights as ambiguous as possible, strongly objected to the initiative proposed by some countries and organizations to detail those articles and the obligations to be borne by each member state. After the UDHR was adopted, the American representative said that only one article – Article 22 – applies to the US, and only one sentence in Article 22 has any value, which is that whether the UDHR could be put into practice depends on “the organization and resources of each State.”

    在《世界人权宣言》制定过程中,美国政府一方面在口头上表示支持,另一方面却竭力强调这只是一个不具约束力、只具鼓舞性的文件。美国坚持把《世界人权宣言》中的人权条款写得尽可能含糊其辞,竭力抵制一些国家和组织提出的把人权条款细致化、把各国所应承担的义务具体化的倡议。在《世界人权宣言》通过后,出席联合国人权大会的美国代表立即宣称,《世界人权宣言》只有一条,即第22条对美国适用;而在第22条中,又只有一句话有价值,即《世界人权宣言》能否实现,取决于“各国组织与资源情况”。

    After 1953, America’s attitude toward internationally acknowledged human rights shifted from reluctance and unwillingness to support to outright indifference. Soon after he came into power, Eisenhower announced that his administration would keep a distance from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and claimed that its domestic and foreign policies would not be bound by human rights obligations. The UN passed in 1960 the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and other measures providing moral support and political legitimacy to anti-colonist forces, which the US either voted against or simply abstained. The same happened to many other human rights treaties. The US was ambiguous about the UN’s efforts to support South Africa’s struggle against the apartheid system in the 1960s because that was at odds with its long-term strategic interests in the country. At the beginning of the Cold War, the United States, out of consideration of national security, regarded the democratizing Guatemalan government of ?rbenz as the expansion of Soviet Communist forces in the country, and finally overthrew the democratically elected government of Guatemala through two secret operations and the combination of diplomatic pressure and psychological warfare. This became a common pattern for the United States to interfere in the internal affairs of Latin American countries.

    1953年后,美国对国际上公认的人权由不太情愿地参与和勉强支持转向公开的漠视。艾森豪威尔政府上台后立即宣布与《世界人权宣言》保持距离,声称在其内外政策方面,将不受人权义务的制约。1960年联合国通过的《非殖民化宣言》及其他一些对反殖民势力予以道义和政治合法性支持的措施,美国政府要么投反对票,要么投弃权票。许多其他人权条约也遭到了同样的冷遇。对20世纪60年代联合国反对南非种族隔离制度的努力,美国的回应则模棱两可,因为这与美国在南非的长期战略利益存在明显的矛盾。冷战初期,美国出于国家安全的考虑,将有民主化倾向的危地马拉阿本斯政府视为苏联共产主义势力在该国的扩张,并通过两次秘密行动,采取外交压力和心理战相结合的手段,最终推翻了危地马拉的民选政府。这成为后来美国在拉丁美洲干涉他国内政的常用模式。

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