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    《新時代的中非合作》白皮書(6)(中英對照)

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    5. Cooperation on Peace and Security

    (五)和平安全合作穩步拓展

    Without security and stability, there can be no development. As a constructive participant in peace and security affairs in Africa, China has always championed the principle of African people solving African issues in their own ways, and advocated the need to address root causes as well as symptoms and seek cooperation for the benefit of all parties. It supports the right of African countries and the AU to play a leading role in the region's peace and security affairs. China supports their efforts to promote peace and stability and fight against terrorism. China endorses the "Silence the Guns in Africa" initiative in countries and regional organizations such as the AU. China will continue to support the UN in providing financial support for the AU's independent peacekeeping operations. Based on the principles of respecting the will of African countries, not interfering in African countries' internal affairs, and observing the basic norms governing international relations, China is actively exploring constructive participation in promoting and maintaining peace and security in Africa.

    沒有和平穩定的環境,發展就無從談起。中國是非洲和平與安全事務的建設性參與者,一貫致力于支持非洲人以非洲方式解決非洲問題,堅持標本兼治,堅持合作共贏,支持非洲國家和非盟在非洲和平安全事務中發揮主導作用,支持非洲提升自主維和、維穩和反恐能力,支持非洲國家和非盟等地區組織落實“消弭槍聲”倡議,支持聯合國為非盟自主維和行動提供資金支持。中國在充分尊重非洲意愿、不干涉內政、恪守國際關系基本準則基礎上,積極探索建設性參與非洲和平與安全事務。

    China and Africa continue to expand exchanges and hold dialogues in the field of peace and security. Since 2019, China has co-hosted or hosted the Dialogue on the Implementation of China-Africa Peace and Security Initiative, the First China-Africa Peace and Security Forum, and the Video Conference on Military Medicine under the forum. It has also actively participated in important conferences or forums held by African countries in related fields. The Chinese Government's Special Representative for African Affairs has actively engaged in mediation efforts in Africa, and played a unique and constructive role in Africa's peace and security endeavors. Through various means such as port calls and joint exercises and training, China has provided strong support to African countries in strengthening national defense and the armed forces, and to countries in the Sahel region and those bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Guinea in upholding security and combating terrorism in their regions. China has launched assistance programs and helped train African military personnel under the Belt and Road Initiative, and in areas of law and order, UN peacekeeping missions, fighting piracy and combating terrorism. China supports the UN in playing an important role in maintaining peace and stability in Africa. Among the permanent members of the UN Security Council, China has sent the largest number of peacekeepers to the continent.

    中非不斷深化和平安全領域的交流與對話,2019年以來,中國先后舉行中非實施和平安全行動對話會、首屆中非和平安全論壇、中非和平安全論壇軍事醫學專題視頻會議,并積極參與非洲國家舉行的和平安全領域重要會議或論壇。中國政府非洲事務特別代表積極斡旋非洲熱點問題,為推進非洲和平與安全發揮了獨特建設性作用。中國通過聯演聯訓、艦艇互訪等多種方式,支持非洲國家加強國防和軍隊建設,支持薩赫勒、亞丁灣、幾內亞灣等地區國家維護地區安全和反恐努力,在共建“一帶一路”、社會治安、聯合國維和、打擊海盜、反恐等領域推動實施安全援助項目并幫助非洲國家培訓軍事人員。中國支持聯合國在維護非洲和平與穩定方面發揮重要作用,是安理會常任理事國中向非洲派遣維和人員數量最多的國家。

    Since China first took part in UN peacekeeping operations in 1990, more than 80 percent of its peacekeepers have been deployed in Africa. Over 30,000 Chinese peacekeepers have been sent to Africa to perform tasks in 17 peacekeeping mission areas. More than 1,800 peacekeepers are currently performing missions in five of these areas – Mali, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (the DRC), Abyei, South Sudan and Western Sahara. In accordance with UN Security Council resolutions, the PLA Navy has deployed regular convoys in the Gulf of Aden since 2008. To date, it has dispatched 39 escort taskforces, providing protection to approximately 7,000 Chinese and foreign vessels in about 1,400 groups. China also decided to donate 300,000 doses of Covid-19 vaccine to UN peacekeepers, with priority given to those in African mission areas. As of August 2020, a total of 11 Chinese military peacekeepers had sacrificed their lives for the noble cause of peace in Africa.

    自1990年參加聯合國維和行動以來,中國派出的維和人員有超過80%部署在非洲,累計向非洲派出3萬余人次,在17個聯合國維和任務區執行任務?,F有1800余名維和人員在馬里、剛果(金)、阿布耶伊、南蘇丹、西撒哈拉等5個非洲任務區執行聯合國維和任務。根據聯合國安理會決議,中國海軍自2008年以來常態部署亞丁灣執行護航任務,迄今已派出39批護航編隊,累計完成約1400余批近7000艘中外船舶護航任務。中國還決定向聯合國維和人員捐贈30萬劑新冠肺炎疫苗,優先用于非洲任務區。截至2020年8月,共有11名中國官兵在聯合國非洲維和行動中獻出寶貴生命。

    China and Africa embrace the expansion of orderly personnel exchanges. They have worked on consular cooperation, increased cooperation between law enforcement departments, and acted against various cross-border crimes. In 2019, Chinese citizens made 607,000 visits to the African continent, while the number of African visitors to China reached 685,000. Growth in personnel exchanges promotes the rapid development of consular relations. In terms of strengthening law enforcement capacity in African countries, since 2018, China has trained over 2,000 African law enforcement officers and provided police supplies. It has dispatched peacekeeping police to African mission areas under the aegis of the UN, and collaborated in dealing with criminal cases, intelligence exchanges, experience-sharing and joint operations under the framework of Interpol.

    中非支持擴大雙方人員有序往來,不斷加強領事合作,推動執法部門合作,共同打擊各類跨國犯罪。2019年,中國公民赴非洲各國達60.7萬人次,非洲各國公民入境中國達68.5萬人次。雙方人員往來快速增長推動中國和非洲國家領事關系迅速發展。中國支持非洲國家加強執法能力建設,2018年以來為非洲國家培訓2000余名執法人員,并提供警用物資。中國在聯合國框架下向非洲任務區派出維和警察,在國際刑警組織框架下同非洲國家積極開展案件協作、情報交流、經驗分享、聯合行動,共同打擊跨國犯罪。

    III. Strengthening Mutual Support

    三、堅定不移鞏固相互支持

    Friendly relations between the PRC and Africa have endured through more than half a century and withstood the test of time. The two sides have always stood firmly together at critical junctures and on major issues. African countries have provided important support for China's endeavors to safeguard its sovereignty, security and development interests, promote reunification, and achieve national rejuvenation through development. China has firmly supported African countries in realizing national independence, following development paths that fit their national conditions, promoting regional integration, and strengthening themselves through unity. China and Africa have joined forces in confronting the grave challenge posed by Covid-19, further reinforcing their friendship. The solidarity between the Chinese and African peoples enables them to overcome difficulties and obstacles and build a bright future.

    中非友好關系經歷半個多世紀的風雨考驗,雙方在關乎彼此前途命運的關鍵時刻和重大問題上始終堅定地站在一起。非洲國家為中國維護主權、安全和發展利益,促進國家統一,實現發展振興提供了重要支持。中國堅定支持非洲國家實現民族獨立,走符合自身國情的發展道路,支持非洲一體化建設和聯合自強的努力。面對新冠肺炎疫情的嚴峻考驗,中非攜手應對,中非友誼得到新的升華。中非人民凝聚團結之力,能夠戰勝艱難險阻,鑄就美好未來。

    1. Upholding International Equity and Justice

    (一)共同捍衛國際公平正義

    China and Africa are important partners in advancing the reform of the global governance system and the reshaping of the international order. Fifty years ago, at its 26th Session, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758 by an overwhelming majority, restoring the lawful seat of the PRC in the United Nations. Since then, China has played a role of growing importance on the international stage. Among the 76 votes in favor of the resolution, 26 were cast by African countries, while 11 of the 23 sponsors of the draft resolution were from Africa. In the current complex and volatile international situation, China and Africa are jointly advancing multilateralism. They unequivocally oppose protectionism and unilateralism, support each other on issues involving the core interests and major concerns of either side, and safeguard the common interests of developing countries. The theory and practice of China-Africa cooperation provide examples for developing countries in handling international affairs, and important references to the reform of the global governance system.

    中國和非洲是推動全球治理體系和國際秩序變革的重要合作伙伴。50年前,第二十六屆聯合國大會以壓倒性多數通過第2758號決議,恢復中華人民共和國在聯合國的合法席位,從此中國人民在國際舞臺上發揮越來越重要的作用。提案的23個國家中有11個來自非洲,76張贊成票中有26張來自非洲。在當今復雜多變的國際形勢下,中非雙方共同弘揚多邊主義,旗幟鮮明地反對保護主義和單邊主義,在涉及彼此核心利益和重大關切的問題上互相支持,維護發展中國家共同利益。中非合作實踐和理念為發展中國家在國際事務中合作樹立了典范,也為改革全球治理體系提供了重要方案。

    – Practicing true multilateralism. Holding high the banner of multilateralism, China and Africa steadfastly support the international system with the United Nations at the core, the international order underpinned by international law, and the basic norms governing international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. The two sides earnestly maintain international fairness and justice and push the international order in a fairer and more reasonable direction. They reject unilateralism and protectionism, and safeguard an open world economy and the multilateral trade system. China and Africa firmly support an increase in the representation and say of developing countries in the international governance system, especially African countries. When casting its vote in the United Nations, China always stands for developing countries.

    ——共同踐行真正的多邊主義。中非高舉多邊主義旗幟,堅定維護以聯合國為核心的國際體系、以國際法為基礎的國際秩序、以聯合國憲章宗旨和原則為基礎的國際關系基本準則,切實維護國際公平正義,推動國際秩序朝著更加公正合理的方向發展。雙方一致反對單邊主義和保護主義,致力于維護開放型世界經濟和多邊貿易體系。中國和非洲堅定支持增加發展中國家特別是非洲國家在國際治理體系中的代表性和發言權,中國在聯合國的一票永遠屬于發展中國家。

    – Jointly safeguarding legitimate rights. China and Africa understand and support each other on major issues such as those related to their sovereignty, territorial integrity, national dignity, and development interests. All African countries with diplomatic ties with China strictly abide by the one-China principle and firmly support China's reunification. China steadfastly supports African countries in safeguarding sovereignty and independence, calls on the international community to assist African countries in safeguarding their right to subsistence and development, objects to any form of racism and racial discrimination, and actively pushes for the lifting of unreasonable unilateral sanctions against African countries. Within the Security Council, China and three African members have established a "1 + 3" consultation mechanism to exchange views on and coordinate responses to major international and regional issues. Since 2017 while holding the rotating presidency of the UN Security Council, China has initiated open debates on "Enhancing African Capacities in Peace and Security", "Peace and Security in Africa: Strengthening Peacekeeping Operations in Africa", "Peace and Security in Africa: Countering Terrorism and Extremism in Africa", and "Peace and Security in Africa: Addressing Root Causes of Conflict in Post-pandemic Recovery in Africa". These have pushed the international community to strengthen unity and cooperation and provide stronger support for Africa's lasting peace.

    ——共同維護正當合法權益。中非在涉及各自國家主權、領土完整、民族尊嚴和發展利益等重大問題上相互理解和支持。所有同中國建交的非洲國家恪守一個中國原則,堅定支持中國統一大業。中國堅定支持非洲國家捍衛國家主權、維護民族獨立,呼吁國際社會幫助非洲國家實現生存權和發展權,反對一切形式種族主義和種族歧視,積極推動解除針對非洲國家不合理的單邊制裁。中國同非洲成員在聯合國安理會建立“1+3”磋商機制,就重大國際和地區問題保持溝通與協調。2017年以來,中國擔任安理會輪值主席國期間,倡議召開了“加強非洲和平與安全能力”“加強非洲維和行動”“非洲和平與安全:打擊非洲恐怖主義和極端主義”等公開辯論會,以及“非洲和平與安全:推進非洲疫后重建,消除沖突根源”高級別會議,推動國際社會加強團結合作、加大力度支持非洲實現長久和平。

    China and Africa have both proposed that the rights to subsistence and development are seen as the primary and basic human rights, that equal importance is attached to all human rights, that exchanges and cooperation on human rights are carried out on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and that individual countries' right in choosing their development paths is respected. They both oppose politicization of human right issues and double standards, and object to interference in other countries' internal affairs under the pretext of championing human rights. In response to Western anti-China forces' mudslinging and false accusations on China in regard to Xinjiang- and Hong Kong-related issues, African countries, alongside other developing countries, have voiced their collective or individual support for China's position, at the UN Human Rights Council and the General Assembly's Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs Committee, commonly referred to as the "Third Committee." African countries agree with China's human rights principles, and support the resolution on the contribution of development to the enjoyment of all human rights and the resolution on promoting win-win cooperation in the field of human rights proposed by China at the Human Rights Council.

    中非都倡導將生存權和發展權作為首要基本人權,同等重視各類人權,在平等和相互尊重基礎上開展人權交流與合作,尊重各國自主選擇發展的權利,反對將人權政治化和搞雙重標準,反對借人權干涉別國內政,促進國際人權事業健康發展。針對西方反華勢力在涉疆、涉港等問題上的歪曲抹黑和不實指責,非洲國家同廣大發展中國家一道,在聯合國人權理事會、聯大三委等場合通過發表共同發言、單獨發言等方式,支持中國正當立場。非洲國家認同中國人權理念,支持中國在聯合國人權理事會提出的“發展對享有所有人權的貢獻”“在人權領域促進合作共贏”等決議。

    China calls on the international community to press forward with reform of global economic governance and offer concrete support for Africa's development. During the G20 Hangzhou Summit, at the initiation of China, a G20 Initiative in Support of Industrialization of Africa and Other Least Developed Countries was issued. In 2015, China announced the establishment of a China-UN Peace and Development Fund. Between 2016 and 2020, its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Sub-Fund sponsored 34 projects in fields such as poverty alleviation, health, energy access, technology innovation, and infrastructure, with African countries being the major beneficiaries. In May 2021, China and Africa launched the Initiative on Partnership for Africa's Development together. The two sides share the view that supporting the development of Africa is the consensus and shared responsibility of the international community. China calls on international partners to increase support to Africa in such areas as response to Covid-19 and other pandemics and post-Covid reconstruction, and to pool resources in those areas where Africa's most urgent needs lie, with a view to providing greater impetus to Africa's development.

    中國呼吁國際社會推動全球經濟治理改革,切實支持非洲實現發展。二十國集團領導人杭州峰會在中國推動下發布了《支持非洲和最不發達國家工業化倡議》。2015年,中國宣布設立中國-聯合國和平與發展基金,2016年至2020年其下設的發展子基金共實施34個項目,涉及減貧、衛生健康、能源可及、科技創新、互聯互通等多個領域,非洲國家是主要受惠方。2021年5月,中非雙方共同發起“支持非洲發展伙伴倡議”。中非一致認為支持非洲發展是國際社會的廣泛共識和共同責任。為應對疫情挑戰、更加旗幟鮮明地支持非洲渡過難關,國際對非合作伙伴有必要把優勢資源投向非方最急需領域,形成支持非洲發展的有效合力。

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